Hydrogen Nickel Cold Fusion
Explaining the principles behind cold fusion has become a challenge for the scientific world since its discovery. The best way to understand the work of the two remarkable scientists Sergio Focardi and Andrea Rossi is by reading the publication by Professor Christos Stremmenos. These two scientists have proved that cold fusion reaction is possible. Here is a brief explanation about what happens in Nickel Hydrogen fusion.
The beginning of Nickel Hydrogen Fusion
To begin with the explanation patent no./2009/125444 was used. It was registered by Dr. Ing. Andrea Rossi himself and
is an invention which has been tested and verified by Professor Sergio Focardi. A paper was published in February 2010 with details on this invention in the Journal of Nuclear Physics.
The reaction between nickel and hydrogen is impossible according to classical physics which is why there has been a lot of resistance in accepting the possibility of cold fusion. The reason for his is because the standard behavior of charged particles, as known for centuries is in contradiction with what is happening in this reaction. Ideally to like charges repel on another while unlike charges attract. However,
in instances where like charges have attracted one another, there has been need for extremely high temperatures, as in the case of nuclear reactions.
Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi have proved that Nickel and Hydrogen nuclei being of the same charges are capable of fusing. According to them the Nickel nuclei in the crystal structure and hydrogen nuclei (protons) diffuse and fuse in small numbers. Strong nuclear forces result and take over the Coulomb forces forming new nuclei of a new element which can be stable or unstable.
Diffusion of Hydrogen into Nickel
Nickel acts as a catalyst and decomposes the bi-atomic molecules of hydrogen into single atoms bringing them into contact with the surface of Nickel atoms. The hydrogen atoms then deposit their electrons into the Fermi Band and diffuse into the nickel crystal structure; resulting in Nickel Hydrogen fusion.
Structure of the Atoms
Nickel is consists of much more protons and neutron than hydrogen,
and has more electrostatic repulsion than hydrogen nucleus. Like all transition metals Nickel nuclei are located at vertices and at the centre of a cubic cell. This leaves a free octahedral space internally within the crystal lattice which is filled with nickel atoms and conductivity electrons. This distribution in nickel hydrogen fusion is a function of temperature.
There is a periodic three dimensional oscillation of the Nickel crystal lattice. This crystal lattice also hosts the hydrogen nuclei or the nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, which are deuterium or tritium. Professor Christos Stremmenos
suggests that the specific density of the electrons and their spatial distribution in the internal space of the crystal structure resulting from Nickel Hydrogen fusion could be synchronous with the
natural frequencies of the oscillations of the crystal lattice. This generates a shield for the diffused hydrogen or deuterium nuclei in the space within the crystal lattice. According to him, this could be the source of energy for the cold fusion reaction.
Electrons Shield the Protons
Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi suspect that the shielding effect of the electrons is one of the main principles of cold fusion. According to their publication, it helps Nickel nuclei in capturing the hydrogen protons which results in a series of exothermic nuclear reactions which result in different isotopes as by products.
Professor Christos Stremmenos has attempted further explaining the shielding effect in Nickel Hydrogen fusion
by answering two questions:
1.The mechanism which overcomes the Coulomb barrier between the nickel nucleus and hydrogen protons.
2.Why there is no radiation emission.
He has used three principles to answer these questions. These are the Bohr’s hydrogen atom, the speed of nuclear reaction and the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg. He explained the Bohr’s hydrogen atom with relation to the De Broglie’s wave. He also explained that the Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg satisfies the De Broglie’s condition arising from the atoms of hydrogen during a small interval. The speed of the reaction also contributes to both Bohr’s hydrogen atom and Uncertainty Principle of Heisenberg which is similar to what Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi have explained.
Professor Christos Stremmenos has also used other statistical functions to put more
light on the principles behind cold fusion as an attempt to understanding Nickel Hydrogen fusion. These include Boltzmann’s distribution, The
Photoelectric Effect, The Compton effect and the Mössbauer effect. There is still more research going on but for now this is the best information we can have until more investigations are completed in grasping the principles in cold fusion.